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T - Z



To adjust a process that is stable, thus causing an increase in variation over what would exist had there been no adjustment.



A small group of individuals with complementary skills who have learned to work together toward a common purpose for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.



A group of people working together in an environment of open communication with effective use of dialogue and discussion to achieve a common purpose.



A set of principles, beliefs, or doctrines generally held to be true, especially one held in common by members of an organization or group, movement, or profession.



An integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events.

Theory Building


Theories are developed as we experience and observe events. Theory building is the process of making theories more accurate and effective. The process of theory building takes place in two stages: descriptive theory and normative theory. In the first stage of theory building, we describe phenomena and suggest associations. At some point in the theory building process, the statements of theory switch from association (descriptive) to causation (normative).



Activities which are designed to improve performance on the job the employee is presently doing. The purpose of training is to either introduce a new behavior or modify the existing behavior so a particular and specified kind of behavior results.



Sharing information about costs, revenues, and investments with stakeholders to achieve engagement, trust, and contribute to solutions. With financial transparency, everyone can be assured that resources are used productively.

Trust/Relationship Model


A process that two or more people go through in order to develop the open communication necessary for an effective team.

Two-way table


A tabular representation of the relationship between pairs of variables. (Similar to a scatter plot)


An unstable system does not necessarily mean one with large variation. Unstable means that the magnitude of the variation from one time period to the next is unpredictable; dominated by special cause variation.

Unstable Process

A process whose outcomes are affected by both common and special causes.

Upper Boundary Limit (UBL)

A value calculated for a CUSUM chart used somewhat analogously to a control limit which helps one decide whether there has been a shift in the process mean.

Upper Control Limit (UCL)


Part of a Shewhart control chart calculated from process data.

Useful Many

A term used in Pareto analysis to indicate the categories that occur less frequently (in contrast to the vital few). The useful many are customarily placed to the right of the chart.


Those largely conscious motivations that we make part of our identity and seek to achieve through our philosophy of life, such as security, love, innovation, excellence.


Measurable differences in the values of characteristics.


Designing the idealized future of the organization as a learning organization that can innovate and take account of the trends seen by foresight that indicate threats or opportunities for the organization. The visioning process of defining and implementing a strategic vision is described as a systemic blueprint of an ideal future which would achieve the organization’s purpose more effectively and efficiently.

Vital Few


A term used in Pareto analysis to indicate the categories that dominate the chart (in contrast to the useful many). These are customarily place at the left of the chart in descending order.

W. Edwards Deming / Dr. Deming


Dr. Deming (1900 – 1993), U.S. statistician and management innovator, was a thought leader of the modern quality movement. After WWII his extensive lectures to Japanese government and industry leaders played a role in helping the Japanese to become a world class producer of quality products and services. Since 1951 the Deming Prize has been awarded annually to reward Japanese companies for major advances in quality improvement. The awards ceremony is broadcast every year in Japan on national television. In recent years companies outside of Japan have applied for the Deming Prize.

Walter Shewhart


Dr. Walter Shewhart was an American physicist, engineer, and statistician (1891 – 1967) considered the father of statistical quality (or process) control. Shewhart developed the control chart technique which is often called the “Shewhart Chart.”



The person in a process who participates in transforming the inputs into outcomes.



A type of control chart used for continuous data where the individual measure is plotted (sometimes called an individuals chart).

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